Santo being the largest island in the Vanuatu island group has a forest cover of approximately 285,530 ha (2010) and also home to some of the endemic plants and animal species in Vanuatu. It has mid-height forest with close and open canopy, being the most prominent forest types in the country with high ecological and forest commercial values dominates most of the higher altitude (300m>) areas especially West coast peninsula. The same forest type that exist on the Eastern part of the island have lost its forest structure through logging operation and reclassified as thickets. Low forest types usually comprising of mix hardwood species dominates most of the lower altitude (300m<) around the island and the upper slopes towards the ridges that usually covered with shrubs and grass. The lower laying areas along the coast of the island have been converted to various land uses and settlement. The annual sustainable yield for Santo and Malo is 23,900m3/year. Santo accommodates the second biggest town, Luganville Municipality and gradually experiencing infrastructure extension, agricultural expansion and also wood extraction as some spectated underlying drivers of deforestations. Santo is a biodiversity hotspot with endemic flora and fauna, virgin forests, bird and animal species and marine life. The island is host to Mt. Tabwemasana being the highest peak above sea level in Vanuatu. Apart from deforestation and logging on Santo, livestock cattle farming is also a main stay of the economy. The island also has the second operational abattoir based in Luganville for cattle slaughtering and butchering for both the domestic and export markets. Most of the commodities (coconut oil, copra, cocoa, timber and beef) are exported from Santo. The government is currently extending the main wharf in Luganville to improve the passage of imports and exports, cruise tourism and stevedoring. The Vanuatu Agriculture College is also located in Luganville and caters for rural farmers and young talented Ni-Vanuatu men and women intending to venture into entrepreneurship. Santo also hosts the Sanma Provincial Government Administration, headquartered in Luganville.

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