Erromango Island is considered the Forestry Island in Vanuatu with its historical trades in forests products before and after Vanuatu gain its independence from the condominium government. Erromango being the least forest disturbed island in the entire country evenly covered by thickets and low forests on the lower land areas while mid-height forests with Agathis and Calophyllum neo-ebudicum dominating the emergent canopy.
Areas converted to shifting cultivation are conspicuous around Ipota, Cooks Bay, Port Narvin and Dillons Bay. The annual sustainable yield is 302,000m3 per year
The island is also home to the largest Kauri Reserve and conservation site in Vanuatu. The kauri reserve is intact with immense flora and fauna with a diverse biodiversity and intriguing ecosystems.